Alexander S. Young, MD, MSHS

Dr. Alexander Young is a psychiatrist and health services researcher with expertise in implementation science, health informatics, and effectiveness research. He has a career-long commitment to studying and improving the quality and value of health care, with a particular focus on vulnerable populations and people with serious mental illness. Dr. Young has extensive experience mentoring and educating junior and mid-career investigators. His early research focused on applying quality measurement methods to mental health. He has published from numerous projects developing measurement of the structure, processes and outcomes of care for mental illness.  Dr. Young studied innovation in managed care and healthcare financing. He led a national project that developed a set of competencies that clinicians need to possess to successfully treat people with serious mental illness. He also led development and testing of an instrument that measures these competencies, and a multi-site controlled trial of a novel consumer-led intervention that improved provider competencies. Since a major barrier to improving mental health care is poor information regarding patients and treatments, and poor information provided to patients, he has developed and implemented informatics systems to support care improvement. He led EQUIP, a VA controlled trial conducted at 8 medical centers in 4 states in partnership with policy-makers. EQUIP implemented evidence-based quality improvement and kiosks to reorganize care at mental health clinics, and improved treatment and outcomes for people with schizophrenia. Dr. Young is currently leading a VA grant studying the effectiveness of a personalized computer system with peer supports to help people with mental illness lose weight. He is also leading an NIMH grant to develop and study a computerized approach to eliciting patient preferences regarding mental health treatments. He is beginning a multi-site VA research grant to implement and study the cost effectiveness of a patient centered medical home tailored to improve general medical care and health in people with serious mental illness.



PACT to Improve Health Care in People with Serious Mental Illness (SMI-PACT)

The Patient Centered Medical Home is a model for reorganizing primary care so that healthcare is more effective, efficient, and user-friendly. Using evidence, this project adapts PACT for people with serious mental illness, implements the model at two healthcare centers, and studies its effectiveness in a controlled trial.

Implementing Patient-Centered Decision Support for Mental Health

This project implements and evaluates a computerized method for assessing treatment preferences in patients with schizophrenia. If this method accurately assesses preferences, it can be used to guide implementation of treatments that improve individuals’ outcomes while meeting their preferences.

Web-Based Delivery of MOVE! to Veterans With Serious Mental Illness

This project develops an internet-based program with peer supports to help Veterans with serious mental illness improve their diet, exercise, weight, and health. The project evaluates, in a randomized controlled trial, the effect of this program on health outcomes compared with in-person weight services and usual care.

Evaluation of the Enhanced Housing First Program

This project evaluates the processes and outcomes of the Enhanced Housing First program, providing an in-depth understanding of Veteran and staff experiences, and facilitating strategies to improve care.




  • National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) Exemplary Psychiatrist Award


  • American Psychiatric Association Early Career Health Services Research Award

1996 – 1998

  • National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD) Young Investigator Award

1993 – 1995

  • National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD) Daniel X. Freedman Young Investigator Award


  • American Medical Association Burroughs Wellcome award for outstanding leadership in community service



Tschudi C, Young AS, Ruben L, Patton CL, Richards FF: Calmodulin genes in trypanosomes are tandemly repeated and produce multiple mRNAs with a common 5′ leader sequence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 1985; 82:3998-4002. PMID: 3858856.

Faraone SV, Young AS, Brown WA: Neuroleptic non-response and affective symptoms: a 2-year prospective study of schizophrenic outpatients. Psychiatry Research 1989; 28:315-321. PMID: 2569751.

Young AS, Faraone SV, Brown WA: Correction of serum neuroleptic activity for blood-to-brain distribution: a method that may render radioreceptor assay results comparable between neuroleptics. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1989; 9:361-363. PMID: 2571620.

Liberman RP, Kopelowicz A, Young AS: Biobehavioral treatment and rehabilitation of schizophrenia. Behavior Therapy 1994; 25:89-107. PMID: 9384930. Reprinted as: Biobehavioural therapy in the rehabilitation of psychotic patients. Italian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences 1993; 3:129-138.

Vaccaro JV, Young AS, Glynn S: Community-based care of individuals with schizophrenia: Combining psychosocial and pharmacologic therapies. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 1993; 16:387-399. PMID: 8101374.

Matsuda KT, Cho MC, Lin KM, Smith MW, Young AS, Adams JA: Clozapine dosage, serum levels, efficacy, and side effect profiles: A comparison of Korean-American and Caucasian patients. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1996; 32: 253-257. PMID: 8783895.

Grusky O, Podus D, Webster C, Young AS: Measuring the cost and outcome effects of case management teams. Research in the Sociology of Health Care, 1997; 14: 305-325.

Sullivan G, Young AS, Morgenstern H: Behaviors as risk factors for rehospitalization: implications for predicting and preventing admissions among the seriously mentally ill. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 1997; 32: 185-190. PMID: 9184463.

Jeste DV, Klausner M, Brecher M, Clyde C, Jones R, ARCS Study Group (Young AS et al): A clinical evaluation of risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia: a 10-week, open-label, multicenter trial. ARCS Study Group. Assessment of Risperdal in a Clinical Setting. 1997; 131: 239-47. PMID: 9203234.

Webster CM, Grusky O, Young AS, Podus D: Leadership structures in case management teams: an application of social network analysis. Research In Community & Mental Health. 1998; 9: 11-28.

Young AS, Grusky O, Sullivan G, Webster CM, Podus D: The effect of provider characteristics on case management activities. Administration and Policy in Mental Health. 1998; 26: 21-32. PMID: 9866232.

Young AS, Nuechterlein KN, Mintz J, Ventura J, Gitlin M, Liberman RP: Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in recent-onset schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 1998; 24: 629-634. PMID: 9853794.

Young AS, Sullivan G, Burnam MA, Brook RH: Measuring the quality of outpatient treatment for schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1998; 55: 611-617. PMID: 9672051.

Young AS, Sullivan G, Murata D, Sturm R, Koegel P: Implementing publicly funded risk contracts with community mental health organizations. Psychiatric Services. 1998; 49:1579-1584. PMID: 9856620.

Webster CM, Grusky O, Podus D, Young AS: Team leadership: Networks differences in women’s and men’s instrumental and expressive relations. Administration & Policy in Mental Health. 1999; 26: 169-190. PMID: 10339833.

Sturm R, Gresenz C, Sherbourne C, Minnium K, Klap R, Bhattacharya J, Farley D, Young AS, Burnam MA, Wells KB: The design of HealthCare for Communities: A study of health care delivery for alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health conditions. Inquiry. 1999; 36: 221-233. PMID: 10459376.

Belin TR, Hu MY, Young AS, Grusky O: Performance of a general location model with an ignorable missing-data assumption in a multivariate mental health services study. Statistics in Medicine. 1999; 18: 3123-35. PMID: 10544311.

Kapur K, Young AS, Murata D, Sullivan G, Koegel P: The economic impact of capitated care for high utilizers of public mental health services: the Los Angeles PARTNERS program experience. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research. 1999; 26: 415-428. PMID: 10565102.

Sullivan G, Koegel P, Kanouse DE, Cournos F, McKennon K, Young AS, Bean D: HIV and people with serious mental illness: the public sector’s role in reducing HIV risk and improving care. Psychiatric Services; 1999; 50:648-652. PMID: 10332900.

Young AS: Evaluating and improving the appropriateness of treatment for schizophrenia. Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 1999; 7:114-118. PMID: 10471250. Reprinted in the Greek edition of the Harvard Review of Psychiatry 2000; 7: No 2.

Young AS, Sullivan G, Duan N: Patient, provider, and treatment factors associated with poor quality care for schizophrenia. Mental Health Services Research. 1999; 1 (4): 201-211. PMID: 11256726.

Young AS, Grusky O, Jordan D, Belin TR: Routine outcome monitoring in a public mental health system: the impact of patients who leave care. Psychiatric Services. 2000; 51: 85-91. PMID: 10647138. Reprinted in Behavioral Outcomes & Guidelines Sourcebook. New York, Faulkner & Gray, 2001.

Young AS, Forquer SL, Tran A, Starzynski M, Shatkin J: Identifying clinical competencies that support rehabilitation and empowerment in individuals with severe mental illness. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research. 2000; 27: 321-333. PMID:

Belin TR, Hu MY, Young AS, Grusky O: Using multiple imputation to incorporate cases with missing items in a mental health services study. Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology. 2000; 1: 7-22.

Unützer J, Klap R, Sturm R, Young AS, Marmon T, Shatkin J, Wells KB: Mental disorders and the use of alternative medicine: results from a national survey. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2000; 157: 1851-1857. PMID: 11967448.

Kapur K, Young AS, Murata D: Risk adjustment for high utilizers of public mental health care. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics. 2000; 3: 129-137. PMID: 11967448

Young AS, Kapur K, Murata D: Data Points: The time course of treatment costs among patients with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services. 2001; 52: 21. PMID: 11141522.

Young AS, Klap R, Sherbourne CD, Wells KB: The quality of care for depressive and anxiety disorders in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2001; 58: 55-61. PMID: 11146758.

Sullivan G, Young AS, Fortney S, Tillipman D, Murata D, Koegel P: Managed care in the public sector: Lessons learned from the Los Angeles PARTNERS program. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research. 2001; 28: 155-163. PMID: 11338327.

Cradock JA, Young AS, Sullivan G: The accuracy of medical record documentation in schizophrenia. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research. 2001; 28: 456-465. PMID: 11732247.

Cradock JA, Young AS, Forquer SL: Evaluating client and family preferences regarding outcomes in severe mental illness. Administration and Policy in Mental Health. 2002; 29: 257-261. PMID: 12033670.

Cradock-O’Leary JA, Young AS, Yano EM, Wang M, Lee ML: Use of general medical services by VA patients with psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric Services. 2002; 53: 874-878. PMID: 12096172.

Wells KB, Sherbourne CD, Sturm R, Young AS, Burnam MA: Alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health care for uninsured and insured Adults. Health Services Research. 2002; 37: 1055-1066. PMID: 12236383, PMCID: PMC1464001.

Mares AS, Young AS, McGuire JF, Rosenheck RA: Residential environment and quality of life among seriously mentally ill residents of board and care homes. Community Mental Health Journal. 2002; 38: 447-458. PMID: 12474933.

Edlund MJ, Young AS, Kung FY, Sherbourne CD, Wells KB: Does satisfaction reflect the technical quality of mental health care? Health Services Research. 2003; 38: 631-645. PMID: 12785565, PMCID: PMC1360907.

Chinman M, Young AS, Rowe M, Forquer S, Knight E, Miller A: An instrument to assess competencies of providers treating severe mental illness. Mental Health Services Research. 2003; 5: 97-108. PMID: 12801073.

Young AS, Mintz J, Cohen AN: Using information systems to improve care for persons with schizophrenia. Psychiatric Services. 2004; 253-255. PMID: 150017424.

Young AS, Mintz J, Cohen AN, Chinman MJ: A network-based system to improve care for schizophrenia: The Medical Informatics Network Tool (MINT). Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 2004; 11 (5): 358-367. PMID: 15187072, PMCID: PMC516242.

Chinman M, Young AS, Schell T, Hassell J, Mintz J: Computer-assisted self-assessment in persons with severe mental illness. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2004; 65: 1343-1351. PMID: 15491237.

Young AS, Sullivan G, Bogart LM, Koegel P, Kanouse DE: Needs for services reported by adults with severe mental illness and HIV. Psychiatric Services. 2005; 56: 99-101. PMID: 15637201.

Young AS, Chinman MJ, Cradock-O’Leary JA, Sullivan G, Murata D, Mintz J, Koegel P: Characteristics of individuals with severe mental illness who use emergency services. Community Mental Health Journal. 2005; 41: 159-168. PMID: 15974496.

Hoge MA, Paris M, Adger H, Collins FL, Finn CV, Fricks L, Gill KJ, Haber J, Hansen M, Ida DJ, Kaplan L, Northey WF, O’Connel MJ, Rosen AL, Taintor Z, Tondora J, Young AS: Workforce competencies in behavioral health: an overview. Administration and Policy in Mental Health. 2005; 32: 593-631. PMID: 16082798.

Young AS, Chinman M, Forquer SL, Knight EL, Vogel H, Miller A, Rowe M, Mintz J: Use of a consumer-led intervention to improve provider competencies. Psychiatric Services. 2005; 56: 967-975. PMID:

Erhart SM, Young AS, Marder SR, Mintz J: Clinical utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging radiographs for suspected organic syndromes in adult psychiatry. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2005; 66: 968-973. PMID: 16086610.

Goldman HH, Frank RG, Burnam MA, Huskamp HA, Ridgely MS, Normand SL, Young AS, Barry CL, Azzone V, Busch AB, Azrin ST, Moran G, Lichtenstein C, Blasinsky M: Behavioral health insurance parity for federal employees. New England Journal of Medicine. 2006; 354: 1378-86. PMID: 16571881.

Bogart LM, Fremont AM, Young AS, Pantoja P, Chinman M, Morton S, Koegel P, Sullivan G, Kanouse DE: Patterns of HIV Care for patients with serious mental illness. AIDS Patient Care and STDs. 2006; 20: 175-82. PMID: 16548714.

Chinman M, Young AS, Hassell J, Davidson L: Toward the implementation of mental health consumer provider services. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research. 2006; 33: 176-195. PMID: 16645906.

Busch AB, Huskamp HA, Normand ST, Young AS, Goldman H, Frank RG: The impact of parity on major depression treatment quality in the Federal Employees’ Health Benefits Program after parity implementation. Medical Care. 2006; 44: 506–512. PMID: 16707998.

Sullivan G, Kanouse D, Young AS, Han X, Perlman J, Koegel P: Co-location of health care for adults with serious mental illness and HIV infection. Community Mental Health Journal. 2006; 42: 345-61. PMID: 16909323.

Niv N, Cohen AN, Mintz J, Ventura J, Young AS: The validity of using patient self-report to assess psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research. 2007; 245-250. PMID: 17204397.

Azrin ST, Huskamp HA, Azzone V, Goldman HH, Frank RG, Burnam MA, Normand SL, Ridgely MS, Young AS, Barry CL, Busch AB, Moran G: Impact of full mental health and substance abuse parity for children in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program. 2007; 119: e452-9. PMID: 17272607, PMCID: PMC1995034.

Dorr D, Bonner LM, Cohen AN, Shoai RS, Perrin R, Chaney E, Young AS: Informatics systems to promote improved care for chronic illness: A literature review. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 2007; 14: 156-163. PMID: 17213491, PMCID: PMC2213468.

Niv N, Cohen AN, Sullivan G, Young AS: The MIRECC version of the Global Assessment of Functioning scale: reliability and validity. Psychiatric Services. 2007; 58: 529-535. PMID: 17412856.

Fremont AM, Young AS, Chinman M, Pantoja P, Morton S, Koegel P, Sullivan G, Kanouse D: Differences in HIV care between patients with and without severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services. 2007; 58: 681–688. PMID: 17463350.

Chinman M, Hassell J, Magnabosco J, Nowlin-Finch N, Marusak S, Young AS: The feasibility of computerized patient self-assessment at mental health clinics. Administration and Policy in Mental Health. 2007; 34: 401-9. PMID: 17453332.

Young AS, Chaney E, Shoai R, Bonner L, Cohen AN, Doebbeling B, Dorr D, Goldstein MK, Kerr E, Nichol P, Perrin R: Information technology to support improved care for chronic illness. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2007; 22 (Suppl 3): 425-430. PMID: 18026812, PMCID: PMC2150622.

Nuechterlein KH, Green MF, Kern RS, Baade LE, Barch DM, Cohen JD, Essock S, Fenton WS, Frese FJ, 3rd, Gold JM, Goldberg T, Heaton RK, Keefe RS, Kraemer H, Mesholam-Gately R, Seidman LJ, Stover E, Weinberger DR, Young AS, Zalcman S, Marder SR: The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery, Part 1: test selection, reliability, and validity. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2008; 165: 203-13. PMID: 18172019.

Brown AH, Cohen AN, Chinman MJ, Kessler C, Young AS: EQUIP: Implementing chronic care principles and applying formative evaluation methods to improve care for schizophrenia. Implementation Science. 2008; 3: 9. PMID: 18279505, PMCID: PMC2278162.

Hebert M, Rosenheck R, Drebing C, Young AS, Armstrong M: Integrating peer support initiatives in a large healthcare organization. Psychological Services. 2008; 5: 216-227.

Young AS, Klap R, Shoai R, Wells KB: Persistent depression and anxiety in the United States: prevalence and quality of care. Psychiatric Services. 2008; 59: 1391-1398. PMID: 19033165, PMCID: PMC3086068.

Hamilton AB, Cohen AN, Young AS: Organizational readiness in specialty mental health care. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2010; 25 Supplement 1: 27-31. PMID: 20077148, PMCID: PMC2806963.

Cohen AN, Glynn SM, Hamilton AB, Young AS: Implementation of a family intervention for individuals with schizophrenia. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2010; 25 Supplement 1: 32-37. PMID: 20077149, PMCID: PMC2806956.

Bystritsky A, Kerwin L, Niv N, Natoli JL, Abrahami N, Klap R, Wells K, Young AS: Clinical and subthreshold panic disorder. Depression and Anxiety. 2010; 27 (4): 381-389. PMID: 20013957, PMCID: PMC3094576.

Young AS, Niv N, Cohen AN, Kessler C, McNagny K: The appropriateness of routine medication treatment for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 2010 (4); 36: 732-739. PMID: 18997159, PMCID: PMC2894584.

Henderson C, Jackson C, Slade M, Young AS, Strauss JL: How should we implement psychiatric advance directives? Views of Consumers, Caregivers, Mental Health Providers and Researchers. Administration and Policy in Mental Health. 2010; 37 (6): 447-458. PMID: 20099077.

Banta JE, Andersen RM, Young AS, Kominski G, Cunningham WE: Psychiatric Comorbidity and Mortality Among Veterans Hospitalized for Congestive Heart Failure. Military Medicine. 2010; 175: 732-741. PMID: 20968262, PMCID: PMC3131142.

Niv N, Shatkin JP, Hamilton AB, Unützer J, Klap R, Young AS: The use of herbal medications and dietary supplements by people with mental illness. Community Mental Health Journal. 2010; 46 (6): 563-569. PMID: 19688594, PMCID: PMC2965367.

Young AS, Niv N, Chinman M, Dixon L, Eisen SV, Fischer EP, Smith J, Valenstein M, Marder SR, Owen RR: Routine outcomes monitoring to support improving care for schizophrenia: Report from the VA Mental Health QUERI. Community Mental Health Journal. 2011; 47 (2): 123-135. PMID: 20658320, PMCID: PMC3058510.

Rost K, Hsieh Y, Xu S, Menachemi N, Young AS: Potential disparities in the management of schizophrenia in the United States. Psychiatric Services. 2011; 62 (6): 613-618. PMID: 21632729.

Cohen AN, Chinman MJ, Hamilton AB, Whelan F, Young AS: Using patient-facing kiosks to support quality improvement at mental health clinics. Medical Care. 2013; 51 (3): S13-S20. PMID: 23407006, PMCID:     PMC3654521.

Hamilton AB, Cohen AN, Glover DL, Whelan F, Chemerinski E, McNagny KP, Mullins D, Reist C, Schubert M, Young AS: Implementation of evidence-based employment services in specialty mental health. Health Services Research. 2013; 48 (6): 2224-2244. PMID: 24138608, NIHMSID: 586200.

Kertesz SG, Holt CA, Steward JL, Jones RN, Roth DL, Stringfellow E, Gordon AJ, Kim TW, Austin EL, Henry SR, Johnson NK, Granstaff US, O’Connell JJ, Golden JF, Young AS, Davis LL, Pollio DE: Comparing homeless persons’ care experiences in tailored versus non-tailored primary care programs. American Journal of Public Health. 2013; 103 (S2): S331-S339. PMID: 24148052.

Cohen AN, Golden JF, Young AS: Peer wellness coaches for adults with mental illness. Psychiatric Services. 2014; 65 (1): 129-130. PMID: 24382767, PMCID: PMC4041484.

Niv N, Cohen AN, Hamilton A, Reist C, Young AS: Effectiveness of a psychosocial weight management program for individuals with schizophrenia. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research. 2014; 41 (3): 370-380. PMID: 22430566, PMCID: PMC3809160.

Kertesz SG, Pollio DE, Jones RN, Steward J, Stringfellow EJ, Gordon AJ, Johnson NK, Kim TA, Daigle SG, Austin EL, Young AS, Golden JF, Davis LL, Roth DL, Holt CL: Development of the Primary Care Quality-Homeless (PCQ-H) Instrument: A Practical Survey of Homeless Patients’ Experiences in Primary Care. Medical Care. 2014; 52 (8): 734-742. PMID: 25023918.

Armstrong NP, Cohen AN, Hellemann G, Reist C, Young AS: Validating a brief version of the Mental Health Recovery Measure for individuals with schizophrenia. Psychiatric Services. 2014; 65 (9): 1154-1159. PMID: 24828568.

Chang ET, Wells KB, Young AS, Stockdale S, Johnson MD, Fickel JJ, Jou K, Rubenstein LV: The Anatomy of Primary Care and Mental Health Clinician Communication: A Quality Improvement Case Study. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2014 [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 24715400.

Bromley E, Mikesell L, Armstrong NP, Young AS: “You Might Lose Him Through the Cracks”: Clinicians’ views on discharge from Assertive Community Treatment. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. 2014 [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 24692027.

Iyer SP, Young AS: Health screening, counseling, and hypertension control for people with serious mental illness in primary care settings. General Hospital Psychiatry. 2014 [Epub ahead of print].

Chinman M, Oberman R, Hanusa BH, Cohen A, Salyers MP, Twamley EW, Young AS: A cluster randomized trial of adding peer specialists to intensive case management teams in the Veterans Health Administration. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research. 2015; 42 (1): 109-121. PMID: 23657754.

Hamilton AB, Chinman M, Cohen AN, Oberman RS, Young AS: Implementation of consumer providers into mental health intensive case management teams. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research. 2015; 42 (1): 100-108. PMID: 24091610.

Chrystal JG, Glover DL, Young AS, Whelan F, Austin EL, Johnson NK, Pollio DE, Holt CL, Stringfellow E, Gordon AJ, Kim TA, Daigle SG, Steward JL, Kertesz SG: Experience of primary care among homeless individuals with mental health conditions. PLOS ONE. 2015; 10 (2): e0 117395.

Gabrielian S, Bromley E, Hellemann GS, Kern RS, Goldenson NI, Danley ME, Young AS: Factors affecting exits from homelessness among persons with serious mental illness and substance use disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2015; 76 (4): e469-e476. PMID: 25919839.